Happy New Year from Lapland

I wish everyone a Happy New Year 2017

Savan buohkaide Buori Ođđa Jagi 2017

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko – Saami History Blog

Historical year 2016

I am often asked why I deal with history and not to improve the future situation for the Saami People?

I usually respond that the future is a creation of the history. To look back creates opportunities for the future. If we do not look back a part of the future will be lost. Examples of this is that all lawsuits in Sweden, Norway and Finland where the Saami People won right to land, fishing rights, hunting rights or any other right has depended on knowledge of history (and of course a lot of knowledge of law). Without knowing the history Saami had to lost all these lawsuits. History is the way to a better juridical future for the Saami people as well as for all other indigenous peoples.

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko – Saami History Blog

A people’s knowledge of their own history reinforces their own self-identity and tell us who we are. Without the knowledge of our own history we do not know who we are and where we come from.

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko – Saami History Blog

History can also be abused. Lies can be used in destructive purposes. During 2016 it has been in the north Swedish newspapers, letters to the editor, in blogs or on websites statements that the Saami are immigrants in their own country, they do not have rights to a specific area of Lapland, the Saami shamanism is a copy of the Viking religion or that the Saami should go home where they come from and much more. By knowing our own history we can respond to the lies with facts. Without knowledge of history destructive lies can to live and thrive.

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko – Saami History Blog

Knowledge of history fills an important function in our society! Historical knowledge has in 2016 given us a greater insight into who we are and where we come from, refutes several historical lies with facts, contributed to the Saami people to win lawsuits and hopefully created something better foundation for the future.

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko – Saami History Blog

But, myself is not only working with history. I usually reply that I also work with law, politics, and to improve the Saami situation here and now. I do not want wait for the future, but let the future be realized today. I´m just to old for waiting.  Everything can not be done, and everything can not be addressed at once. However, a trip starts with a first step. To reach the destination we have to initiate the trip. To stand still and is leading nowhere!

During the past year 2016, I, as a local politician in a Saami administrative municipality, made suggestions such as Saami language should be a merit in appointments as well as knowledge of the Saami culture, the municipal website and information should also be available in the Saami language, and that our local municipality now will be the first municipality in Sweden with Saami street signs. Personally, I am satisfied with what has been achieved in politics of the local municipal level during 2016. Hopefully the our little municipality in the high mountains will become a model municipality for other municipalities in Lapland. However, much remains to be done and much has to change in order to create a better future here and now. Hopefully in 2017 will be a year of change for the Saami people for the better future.

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko – Saami History Blog

historic anniversary year 2017

What can we expect from 2017?

Without a doubt, 2017 will be the year of jubilee and especially for 100-year-olds!

I do not mean only that the LION celebrates 100 years as SSU, BMV, Swedish Chess Club, Swedish Brevduveförbundet, Swedish Vorstehklubben, Sigtunastiftelsen who built the city Sigtuna or other 100-year jubilee.

Nor do I mean that it is 100 years since the Russian Revolution that certainly will be noticed.

I do not mean that it’s been 500 years since Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses on the door of the church in Wittenberg, Germany, and created a new Christianity. The event in itself is not historically coated. But, regardless, it has changed northern Europe.

Instead, I mean the Saami 100-year celebrations in the city of Trondheim, Norway. In year 1917 it was the first time that meeting was held with Saami representatives from both North and South. Id was the first meeting for the people Saami. The meeting is celebrated every year by the Saami National Day 6 February in memory of the Saami people first joint meeting.

Rather, I mean that independent Finland celebrates 100 years and where the Saami will be focus in several ways. The jubilee year starts at the beginning of 2017 and culminating in the independence day of Finland in December. The opening of the jubilee year starts with a big and visible festival on New Year’s Eve in the capital Helsinki. The theme of the anniversary year is “together” and hopefully the Finnish anniversary year will contribute more to include the Saami people.

Rather, I mean that the city of Sollefteå in Lapland, including the 100-year jubilee cities Trollhattan and Katrineholm, celebrates 100 years. Hopefully the 100 year anniversary will make the Saami and Saami culture more visibility in Sollefteå than before.

With this brief flashback to the topic Saami history I wish all readers of this blog a Happy New Year 2017.

Lars-Nila Lasko

Homepage: www.lasko.mobi
Guhkkin davvin Dávggáid vuolde sabmá suolggai Sámieanan

 

 

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Saami origin by Lars-Nila Lasko

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko – Saami History Blog

Origin of Saami?

“Saami origin” is the theme that opens this blog and I will highlight both from historical documents to the latest in DNA research.

You will not receive a answere to a specific place where the Saami people are from. The issue is more complicated than that and contains a variety of other questions that may never be answered?

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko – Saami History Blog

We are all unique

We all come from Africa. But, over time we have been formed to became different and spread out over Earth. Over thousands of years’ time has shaped each person to a unique blend and composition of who you are and made only you. Likewise, every People on earth are a unique blend and composition shaped during a very long time and formed an ethnicity that exists right now. A People existing right now and with a ethnicity of today has not existed before and may be not exist in future.

 

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko – Saami History Blog

When did the Saami became Saami?

Somewhere on man’s journey from Africa to Lapland arise the ethnic group Saami. But, when and where did a people became a people? For the Saami –  When in time and where did the Saami People became the Saami People? When in time and where did the Saami People became the Saami People with the ethnicity of today?

 

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko

When was the Saami language a Saami language?

However, Saami origin is more complicated than that. When and how did the language arise we all define as a Saami language? Moreover, one can ask whether Saami language is one or several languages. Each Saami language group uses its own alphabet, their own orthography, their own pronunciation, and the need, in some cases, to use an interpreter or a third language to understand each other. Maybe it is question of the definition of what a language is. Anyway, the Saami languages include secrets codes that no one has yet been able to solve and which have to do with the Saami origin. Theories about the Saami language or languages origin have set linguists to a war against each other, linguists against social anthropologists and most recently; linguists and social anthropologists against DNA researchers. Was it so that Saami had another euripean language from scratch and changed the language because of a Finno-Ugric immigration and majority? Or is it the other way around as some DNA researchers argue? DNA research has shown that, for example, Finnish language group, not so long ago was very small and that Saami could very well have been the majority of the people. Has Saami languages been loaning words from the Baltic and Germanic languages or is it vice versa? Anyway, there are several scientific theories about the Saami languages or the Saami language.

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko – Saami History Blog

Historical perspective – Swedes are a young people and Saami an old people

If the Saami had a young language that was formed relatively recently, it had been easier to crack the Saami language codes. But, it is because of the old age of the Saami language or languages that makes it difficult. In order to get a historical perspective may be I should mentioned that the Swedish language occurred about 800 years A.C., while scientists argue about which millennium B.C. the Saami language arised!

To complicate it further about the Saami origin there are additional code or codes to crack about Saami settlement area. We know that the Swedish language emerged in year 800, and kingdom of Sweden emerged a few hundred years later. Likewise, we know where Lapland is today. But, where did the Saami lives for 200 years ago, 500 years ago and not to talk about 2000 years or 3000 years ago?

 

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko – Saami History Blog

Saami western and northern borders

It is easy to determine the boarder of Saamiland to the west because of the Atlantic Ocean and to the north because of the Arctic Ocean.

 

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko – Saami History Blog

Saami southernmost border in Sweden and Norway?

But, where was the Saami’s southernmost border in Sweden and Norway? Saami traces have been found in southern Norway and central Sweden in the form of name of places, written documents and some archaeological findings. There is an additional problem that archaeologists in southern Sweden and Norway are not looking for Saami tracks. They are traditionally looking for typical Swedish or Norwegian tracks. If you’re not looking for something you will probably not find it?

 

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko

Saamiland southernmost boarder at the European continent?

But, where was the Saami area southernmost boarder at the European continent? Today, all researchers agreed that earlier the Saami area was extended to the continent, ie on the other side of the Baltic Sea. But, how far to the south was the southernmost boarder of Saamiland? Some written documents after the birth of Christ are talking about somewhere in Poland or the north of Poland. A government commission of historians believed that Saami southernmost boundary was somewhere in the Baltics (Latvia). Ancient findings, which have become tourist attractions, speaks of at least the lake Ladoga in Russia. Most recently DNA scientists claim that the Saami came from the western European continent and immigrated to Scandinavia from the south and east. Then we have the language researchers with their questions about the German, Baltic, and old Norse loanwords in Saami languages.

 

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko

Eastern boarder of Saamiland?

But, where was the Saami’s eastern frontier on the continent? A memorial stone made by Russian monks from the 1500s says there were only Saami when the monks arrived. The memorial stone is quite unknown to Saami historian. No wonder? The memorial stone is placed so far east and across the White Sea in Arkhangelsk, Russia. However, there are also Saami objects found and preserved in a museum in Arkhangelsk County. In addition, Russian researchers have difficult to explain names of villages along the river Dvina. Russian scientist Alexander Davidov has argued that it must be names of Saami origin.

Language researchers have in addition other issues that complicate it with the Saami peoples and Saami language origin. If the Saami language belongs to the Finno-Ugric language family, and the Finno-Ugric language family originates from the Urals in Siberia, why did the Finno-Ugrian only spread to the west? Why not to the east? Is it not more logical that a language spread like ripples on the water – to all directions? Can it be that the Finno-Ugric languages spread from the west to the east? In addition, the Saami language most eastern relatives is the languages of the peoples of Khanty and Mansi in Western Siberia. However, they have very low genetic similarities with Saami people according to DNA researchers. In addition, to complicated it more, Finnish language has been a very small language group according to DNA researchers?

 

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko – Saami History Blog

Circumpolar ethnic group?

In this context it should be mentioned that there also emerged a new circumpolar theory, ie, that all peoples of Actic, the Saami, Inuit (Eskimos) and Native Americans, have a common origin. Proponents of the theory have a lot of arguments against today’s DNA-researchers?

 

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko – Saami History Blog

Sameland moves,

Today the Saami people lives in four countries in Scandinavia, northern Finland and north eastern Russia. However, it must be assumed that the Saami area during the course of history has changed with the Saami’s own migrations.

 

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko

Blog with trekking through the era

This blog about Saami history starts from the beginning and ends with the Saami situation of today.

The theme that starts the blog is “Saami origin”. The origin of the Saami People will raises more questions than answers. In the blog you will be a travel through several thousands of years and which I will take up documents, records and historical traces of the Saami people. It will be documents, records and historical traces of the Saami People that you will not find in history books of the Saami People.

In the blog’s first theme “Saami origin” I will also take up the bizarre theories of Saami origin, for example; One of Sweden’s most famoust historians in his time believed that all people of the world emigrated from Lapland, another professor that the Saami People is a part of the people of Israel, Saami own lost Atlantis,” Artefacts of Saami found far away from Lapland and available on a local unknown museum, a professor of history suggested that the island Åland in the Baltic sea have been inhabited by the Saami, a former 500 year unknown monument that speak of the Saami as a sea people, ancient Saami words that should not exist and much more.

 

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko

History and Law

They are few people in the world, as the Saami People, where law, rights and history are so interwoven. Different views on the Saami in different times have changed the legislation concerning the Saami. The historical development has gone hand in hand with the development of law. Therefore Saami lawyers also become historians. Interestingly, even historians of the Saami people become lawyers or legal historians. It shows how the subjects of history and rights are so closely linked concerning the Saami People!

Lars-Nila Lasko

Homepage: www.lasko.mobi
Guhkkin davvin Dávggáid vuolde sabmá suolggai Sámieanan

Saami history from a Saami perspective by Lars-Nila Lasko

Definition of a Sami family

During the 1950-1970 were among the Sami a joke about how you define a Saami family. The answer was 1 father, 1 mother, 2 children, 1 dog and 1 researcher.

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko – Saami History Blog

Saami people – The most researched people in the world?

The humorous story has actually a small grain of truth. There are a countless number of research papers on Sami virtually everything possible. Already in the 1600s and onwards financed the Swedish State research expeditions to Lapland to find out about the Saami People.

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko – Saami History Blog

The view of the Saami people from other eyes

Most of what is researched and written about the Sami people are from other peoples.

It would take until 1972 before Saami got their own research institution, “Sami Instituhtta” in Kautokeino, Norway.  Saami started to research about themselves and produced research about themselves. Today, the picture is completely different with a large number of Saami researchers and Saami research institutions.

Today’s researchers, whether they are Saami or not, and their research result about the Sami should certainly not be underestimated. Research is today free and objective, as well as all knowledge is good. However, research has not always been free and objective!

Several historians has declared that the Sami do not even have any history like K.B. Wiklund, Björn Collinder, Gustav von Duben or as another historian put it, “The Saami are the People without history”.

twisted-shadow-of-history

Saami history from a Saami perspective

This blog is intended to inform about Saami history from a Saami perspective. The same thing and the same event can be interpreted differently depending on how you look at an object or phenomenon. This is a blog that looks at Saami history with other glasses than you’re used to…

Lars-Nila Lasko

Homepage: www.lasko.mobi
Guhkkin davvin Dávggáid vuolde sabmá suolggai Sámieanan

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Merry Christmas in Saami languages!

Mun sávan buohkaide ráfálaš Juovla ja Ođđajagi ávvudeami 2017! (Saami)

I wish everyone a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year 2017!

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko – Saami History Blog

For most people around the world, Christmas is an imported tradition. In earlier times there was not Christmas in Sami tradition. Today Christmas is celebrated among the Sami in the same way as that of other peoples in the world. Maybe Sea Saami have some more delicacies from the sea, perhaps Fishing Saami have more salted fish of different shapes and maybe reindeer herders have more reindeer meat among all the Christmas Ham and dried, salted and lye Stockfish (Lutfisk)? Otherwise, the Christmas celebrations is the same as for everyone else on earth.

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko – Saami History Blog

That Christmas is imported to the Saami People can be seen in the Saami language. In the East Saami language area is the word Christmas originated from the Russian word for Christmas “Roždest” (Рождест). In the West Saami language area is the word Christmas originating from the Nordic “Jul” and the old germanic word “jehwla”. Jehwla originally meant only likely to “feast”.

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko – Saami History Blog

Merry Christmas can be said in many ways in Saami. The reason is that the Saami language is actually many different languages. It has “Merry Christmas” in Sami from northern to southern Saamiland – A language trip from the White Sea at Kola Peninsula in Russia to the deep forests at the Coutny of Dalarna in the south Sweden;

Šuvv Rostov! (Ter Saami language)

Rostov Pijven! (Kilding Saami language)

Siõǥǥ Rosttvid! (Skolt Saami language)

Pyereh Juovlah! (Inari Saami language)

Buorit Juovllat! (Northern Saami language)

Buorre Javlla! (Lule Saami language)

Buorre Jåvvlå! (Pite Saami language)

Buörrie Juvvla! (Ume Saami language)

Lahkoe jåvle! (Southern Saami language)

In addition there were until 1700s the Kainu Saami language and 1800s the Kemi Saami language in Finland. Very few is speaking Akkala Saami language in Russia. Kemi Saami language and Kainu Saami language are now extinct languages!

It´s belived that in ancient time were more Sami languages in central and south Finland and in Karelia (Koponen, 1996; Saarikivi, 2004; Aikio, 2007).

In Sweden there are a list of 1.644 Saami words from Valbo, Gästrikland,  recorded in 1770 – 1780 by a student Petrus Holmberg to Carl von Linné. A summary of the list was published by K.B. Wiklund. The whole list could be find in manuscript collection number 105 by historian Ihré at UBB, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden. This may indicate that there has been a futher Saami language, or South Saami dialect, south of the South Saami language.

About “Merry Christmas” in Lule Saami language it was traditionally  ”Buorre Javla”. However, today it is more populare to say  Buorre Javlla.

 

Lars-Nila Lasko - Saami History Blog
Lars-Nila Lasko – Saami History Blog

Although Christmas traditions are a relatively recent among the Sami and Sami culture. My father, who was born on the 25th December 1914, told me that in his youth he noticed that the Swedes had Christmas trees. Of course, he also wanted a Christmas tree at his home in Alesdis (Eagle Bay).

With his younger brother they skied around 3 mile over the lake Tjeggelvas to Guosak. “Guosak” means in Saami language where the fir trees growing. There cut down a tree and began to drag it across the lake to their home.

In the middle of the lake, they met an elderly Saami from Ales Giehtje. Ales Giehtje means in Saami language “The west end” of the lake Tjeggelvas. The older Saami man recommended the young people that they should trimming the tree and take away all the sprigs. Then the tree will be easier to transport. My father explained that they had been cutting a “Jåvvlåguossa” (Christmas tree in Saami). The older Sami explained that there are no Christmas trees – just trees – and asked which trees would only grows during Christmas?

Back home my father set up the Christmas treewith no decorations. My grandfather Nila arrived home in the evening from the reindeer hearding. My grandfather spoke no Swedish, and had never heard of Swedish Christmas traditions. In addition, my parents lived completely cut off from the outside world with no road, electricity, telephone, running water or other amenities. The first thing my grandfather wondered was; Why there was a tree in the house? The Christmas tree was not very long-lived. It was takend out after a few days. My grandfather thought it was youthful stupidity to take in a tree into the house and for what?

With this little Christmas story from historic day in the mountains, I wish all of you, who read this blog, a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year 2017!

 Lars-Nila Lasko

Guhkkin davvin Dávggáid vuolde sabmá suolggai Sámieanan!

 

 

 

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